1958 - 1962

Quantum tunneling is explored and applied.

In 1958, the Japanese physicist Leo Esaki, working at the Sony Corporation, uses quantum tunneling, which allows wave-like electrons to penetrate barriers that are impassable according to classical physics -- in the tunnel diode, a new electronic device. In 1962 the 22-year old Cambridge University student Brian Josephson finds that pairs of electrons can tunnel between two separated superconductors, an effect that is used in sensitive magnetic probes for geology, medicine and physics.
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