In a synchrotron, electrons accelerated to high speeds around a circular track emit intense beams of X-ray, ultraviolet, and infrared light. These are useful in the analysis of solids, molecules, atoms, and biological systems. They can also serve technological purposes such as etching computer chips. In 1981, the first synchrotron designed for the production of X rays rather than research in elementary particles begins operations at Daresbury, England.
Dedicated synchrotron light sources become operational.