art & culture
  Seagram Building, New York
1954-58 Mies van der Rohe Seagram Building, New York

Three Flags
1958 Jasper Johns Three Flags

Princess Phone
1959
Princess Phone

IBM Selectric
1961
IBM Selectric

TWA Terminal, New York
1956-62 Eero Saarinen TWA Terminal, New York

 Salk Institute, La Jolla
1959-65 Louis Kahn Salk Institute, La Jolla, California

  Connections

TV dinner By mid-century the new physics was beginning to pay off in a wide range of applications. Its scope extended vertically, as it were, from the unimaginably small interior of the nucleus up to the incomprehensibly vast stretches of the universe. At the same time, physics also had a powerful horizontal impact on other branches of science, often by way of novel instrumentation, and on technology.

For biology, physical methods brought about spectacular results. The discovery of the double helix of the DNA molecule, revealed by X-ray /images of crystallized DNA, triggered a revolution in genetics. Henceforth the mechanisms of heredity could be understood in tangible, material terms, and eventually even manipulated. Medicine acquired an important technique when Rosalyn Sussman YalowRosalyn Sussman Yalow (right), an American nuclear physicist, invented a way to use radioactivity for detecting minute amounts of a huge variety of materials, ranging from nicotine to viruses, in the human body. Though its name twists the tongue, her method, called radioimmunoassay, relies on a simple principle. If you count six red-eyed fruit flies in a jar, and you know that the incidence of red eyes is one in a thousand, you conclude that there are 6000 flies in the jar -- without the tedium of counting them. Radioimmunoassay counts molecules rather than flies, and measures radioactivity, rather than eye color.

Chemistry gained a valuable diagnostic tool with nuclear magnetic resonance. Radar research had led to instruments that can identify nuclei by the way they absorb microwaves. For chemists, whose usual province is the electron cloud of the atom, this descent to the nucleus opened new opportunities. Nuclear magnetic resonance itself would later develop into magnetic resonance imaging, with a name chosen purposely to avoid the connotations of the word nuclear. Geology also adopted an instrument based on 20th century physics. The SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device), which relies on a peculiar quantum effect discovered in 1962, can detect otherwise imperceptible changes in magnetic fields induced by the presence of mineral deposits.

In these and countless other ways physics began to stimulate research in its sister sciences. The most influential achievements of the 1950's, however, were the invention of the laser and the development of the transistor. Both of these devices, which are direct applications of quantum mechanics, would transform science and spawn entire industries devoted to new technologies.

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